The peripheral area of the massif is covered with cultivated areas, mainly olive trees. Among the natural species, different ecosystems stand out, depending on the altitude:
In the lowest and driest areas there is an abundance of holm oaks and wild-olives, accompanied by a shrubs such as kermes oaks, hawthorns, mastics and thymes.
In the medium-high areas (above 800-1000 m) holm oaks appear with peonies, gorses, and different types of brooms.
On the slopes facing north and at the bottom of the valleys, in cool and humid areas, the gall oak stands out, accompanied by maples and hawthorns, next to scrubs of kermes oak, hawthorn, thyme and gorse.
In the highest areas of the range, above 1,200 m, there are dense thorny bushes with a cushioned appearance and of low height.
In the numerous clefts of the rocks appear lithophyte speciessuch as Silene pseudovelutina, Centaurea clementei, etc.
In the vicinity of the scarce rivers and streams, can be found gallery forests consisting of silver poplar, black poplar, ash, willow, tamarisk, wild blackberry, etc.
Birds of prey are the most distinctive species of the park and its symbol is the pregrine falcon. The park is home to many species but the most common are:
The park’s herpetofauna is rich and varied, and it constitutes the are with the greatest amphibian biodiversity of the province of Córdoba. Some species are endemic to the Iberian Peninsula.
There are salamanders such as the Iberian ribbed newt (Pleurodeles waltl) and the southern marble newt (Triturus pygmaeus). Frogs are the most abundant and diverse with seven species: Iberian green frog (Pelophylax perezi); Mediterranean tree frog (Hyla meridionalis); common toad (Bufo bufo); natterjack toad (Epidalea calamita); Iberian parsley frog (Pelodytes ibericus); Spanish painted frog (Discoglossus jeanneae) and Iberian spadefoot toad (Pelobates cultripes).