The limestone rock, which has been shaped by the water during thousands of years, presents in the Nature Reserve of the Subbetica an interesting karstic relief with great diversity of elements (poljes, channels, sinkholes, chasms, and more than 800 caves). In addition, these rocks imply a history of more than 200 million years old. Important chapters of the complex history of the Tethys Ocean were registered in the sediments, emphasizing the ammonites, former animals with shell spiral, which became the emblem of the Geopark of the Subbética Mountain Range due to the abundance and diversity of their fossil forms.

The Subbética Mountain Range was declared a Nature Reserve in 1988 highlighting principally its geological characteristics. In 2006 they joined the European Geoparks Network and the Global Geoparks Network, supported by UNESCO.

The most important points of interest from a geological point of view are the following: